Following several years of steady progress toward elimination of measles in the World Health Organisation (WHO) European Region, the number of countries having achieved or sustained elimination of the disease has declined. This was the conclusion of the European Regional Verification Commission for Measles and Rubella Elimination (RVC) based on an assessment of annual status updates for 2018 submitted by the 53 member states of the region.
The RVC determined that for the first time since the verification process began in the region in 2012, 4 countries (Albania, Czechia, Greece and the UK) lost their measles elimination status.
“Re-establishment of measles transmission is concerning. If high immunisation coverage is not achieved and sustained in every community, both children and adults will suffer unnecessarily and some will tragically die,” says Dr Günter Pfaff, chair of the RVC.
The RVC was, on the other hand, pleased to conclude that Austria and Switzerland attained elimination status, having demonstrated the interruption of endemic transmission for at least 36 months.
For the region as a whole, as of the end of 2018, 35 countries are considered to have achieved or sustained measles elimination (compared to 37 for 2017), 2 have interrupted the endemic transmission of measles (for 12–35 months), 12 remain endemic for measles and 4 that had previously eliminated the disease have re-established measles transmission.
The surge in cases that began in 2018 has continued into 2019, with approximately 90 000 cases reported for the first half of the year. This is already more than that recorded for the whole of 2018 (84 462).
The ongoing circulation of measles in the region continues to be internally classified within WHO as a Grade 2 emergency. This designation allows the WHO to mobilise the technical, financial and human resources needed to support the affected countries.
“Great efforts to control this highly contagious disease have brought us a long way towards regional elimination. However, ongoing measles outbreaks demonstrate that more is needed. Through activation of the emergency response, WHO has increased its focus on measles elimination and upgraded its action. This is the time and opportunity to address any underlying health system, social determinants and societal challenges that may have allowed this deadly virus to persist in this Region,” says Dr Zsuzsanna Jakab, WHO regional director for Europe.
The RVC is an independent panel of experts that meets annually to assess measles elimination status in the Region based on extensive annual reports submitted by each country. It met on 12–14 June 2019 in Warsaw, Poland to evaluate reports for 2018 and based its conclusion on several factors including measles surveillance data, routine immunization coverage, outbreak response, and the reach of supplemental immunization campaigns and other activities.
The RVC also concluded that the situation for rubella has improved. 39 countries achieved or sustained elimination status (compared to 37 in 2017), 3 interrupted endemic transmission (compared to 5 in 2017) and 11 countries continue to be considered endemic for rubella.
"We are backsliding, we are on the wrong track," said Kate O'Brien of the WHO's immunisation department in a BBC News report. O'Brien said all four European nations that have lost their eradication status have "extremely high" vaccination coverage. "This is the alarm bell that is ringing around the world: being able to achieve high national coverage is not enough, it has to be achieved in every community, and every family for every child," she said.
The report says health experts warn that lies about the measles vaccine have allowed the illness to spread in certain areas or communities. O'Brien blamed misinformation about vaccines and called on social media companies and community leaders to provide "accurate, valid, scientifically credible information".
Pinterest users searching for vaccine-related information will, meanwhile, be directed to results from "public health organisations", reports BBC News. Last year, the social platform stopped showing results for vaccine searches to tackle the spread of misinformation.
The report says social media companies are facing increasing scrutiny over how they moderate content on their sites. In recent months, other firms including Facebook have taken some steps to address vaccine misinformation.
Under the new policy, Pinterest said searches for "measles," "vaccine safety" and other related health terms will return results from public health bodies including the WHO, the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and the WHO-established Vaccine Safety Net. "We're taking this approach because we believe that showing vaccine misinformation alongside resources from public health experts isn't responsible," the firm is quoted in the report as saying. "As we continue to tackle health misinformation, we remove it and the accounts that spread it from our service," Pinterest said.
[link url="http://www.euro.who.int/en/media-centre/sections/press-releases/2019/european-region-loses-ground-in-effort-to-eliminate-measles"]WHO material[/link]
[link url="http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/communicable-diseases/measles-and-rubella/activities/regional-verification-commission-for-measles-and-rubella-elimination-rvc/conclusions-of-the-8th-meeting-of-the-european-regional-verification-commission-for-measles-and-rubella-elimination-rvc"]WHO report[/link]
[link url="https://www.bbc.com/news/health-49507253"]BBC News report[/link]
[link url="https://www.bbc.com/news/business-49506011"]BBC News report[/link]